By Haris Retno Susmiyati
More than 35 % of Indonesian upland territory has been licensed as mining concession, of which 11.4 million hectares is located within protected areas. Since legally established in 1967, more than 3,576 mining concessions have been granted by the government. However, mine sector contribution to Indonesian government’ net income is only 2% -4%. The amount is very unequal to the impacts caused by the sector toward local people and environment across Indonesia archipelago. One of the most suffering from mining activities islands is the Kalimantan (Borneo), especially the eastern Kalimantan.