The promise: Switching from a fossil fuel economy to a “bio” economy will solve the ecological and climate crisis. But new conflicts are looming: Whose land will be taken to power a "bio" economy based on the same economic model? Whose territories will be destroyed to dig up the minerals needed? For forest peoples, 'bio' energy, 'green' mining and 'green' plantations mean more dispossession and violence.

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Certification schemes seeking to legitimize activities that harm the environment and its people, with terms like “sustainable”, are a survival strategy for capitalism. In the framework of the energy transition, even the mining industry seeks to validate its unstoppable growth.