15 Years of REDD: A Mechanism Rotten at the Core

REDD 15 years


Since it was introduced in 2007, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) has become the dominant forest policy around the world, impacting forest-dependent communities in countries with tropical forests in particular.

The experience of the past 15 years has shown an overwhelming record of REDD's catastrophic failure to address deforestation and forest degradation – and worse: it has also intensified the climate crisis and left the causes of deforestation untouched. REDD, in fact, has become an underlying cause of deforestation and climate change itself.

This publication gathers 11 articles that reflect on fundamental and dangerous dimensions of REDD. We hope that each of them will help to strengthen our arguments and actions against offsetting and to uncover it for what it really is: a racist scheme that can never be improved or fixed because it is designed to 'keep the oil flowing' and, with this, the capitalist system that is driving the current climate, forest and social crises.


- Foreword (WRM Secretariat)

- Words of caution about some terms used in this publication

- REDD: Not Just a Failure and What's hiding behind the letters R – E – D - D? (Jutta Kill)

- Is All Carbon the Same? Fossil Carbon, Violence and Power (Joanna Cabello)

- Ending Colonialism Means Ending REDD+ (Larry Lohmann)

- “It is Not Just the Takings of our Land… It is the Takings of our Identity” (Interview with Tom Goldtooth)

- 10 Years of REDD+ in Acre and its Impacts on Indigenous and Rubber Tapper Women (Interview with Letícia Yawanawa and Dercy Teles de Carvalho)

- Blood Coal for Blood Carbon in Colombia: Expansion of Carbon Taxes with REDD+ underscores the Failure of Carbon Pricing (Tamra L. Gilbertson)

- The Katingan REDD+ Project in Indonesia: The Commodification of Nature, Labour and Communities' Reproduction (Izzuddin Prawiranegara)

- The Legacy of the Community Carbon Project in Nhambita, Mozambique: Nostalgia, Disillusionment and Indignation (Boaventura Monjane, Natacha Bruna and Euridse Samuel)

- The PIREDD/Plateaux REDD+ Project in Mai-Ndombe, DRC: Conflicts and a Complaint Mechanism (Prince Lungungu)

- A Danger for Communities and the Climate: So-called “Nature-Based Solutions” in Gabon (Muyissi Environnement and WRM)

- Big Polluters, Carbon Offsetting, and REDD+ (Chris Lang)

- Recommended readings

Cover and illustrations

REDD 15 years
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REDD illustration
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is all carbon the same
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