PHC Congo: European development banks must be held accountable for broken mediation process

Collective statement, 20 November 2023

PHC Congo: European development banks must be held accountable for broken mediation process

It has now been more than five years since nine communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) filed a complaint with the International Complaint Mechanism (ICM) of the German, French and Dutch development banks. The complaint centred around land conflicts with the oil palm plantation company, Plantations et Huileries du Congo (PHC, formerly owned by Feronia Inc). Unfortunately, the mediation process resulting from this complaint is set to collapse, unless strong measures are taken to ensure adequate, safe, independent and truly inclusive participation of the local communities and their representatives.  

The complaint filed by villagers from the areas of Lokutu and Boteka in 2018 dealt with three issues: land conflicts, violence against villagers, and the lack of transparency. Over the past five years, none of these issues have been resolved, but have instead only grown worse.

The villagers who filed the complaint continue to be routinely arrested, harassed and intimidated by security guards of the company and a detachment of national soldiers and police that was sent to support them. Testimonies and declarations from the villagers attest to an alarming level of brutality, with security guards and soldiers vandalising people’s homes and robbing them of their money and valuables, with impunity. This repression is taking place despite PHC and the DRC authorities having formally agreed in a mediation session in March 2023 to ensure the release of villagers held in prisons and to stop all violence and criminalisation of villagers. Yet, to this day,  dozens of villagers continue to languish in jails under dubious accusations of theft from the plantations. As long as this repression continues to escalate, community members will not feel safe participating in the mediation process.

Another critical failure in the mediation process is that the company and the government have refused to provide copies of the relevant land documents. Without these documents it is not possible for the mediation to resolve the century-old land conflict at the heart of the tensions between the company and the community and at the centre of the complaint filed half a decade ago. The tripartite commission formed under the mediation process to investigate the legitimacy of the company’s land claims has therefore been unable to carry out its mission. PHC has simply refused to comply with the mediation team's request for the PHC to provide these documents. Nevertheless, the affected villagers, with assistance from the Congolese human rights organisation RIAO-RDC, have provided the ICM panel with detailed information about how PHC created new survey markers and expanded its occupation of their lands between 2011-2015 without consulting them. During that period of time, PHC was receiving millions of dollars in funding from European development banks.

In November, PHC announced massive expansion plans to increase its palm oil production capacity from 80,000 tonnes annually to two million tonnes in seven to eight years. It remains unclear where the company plans to acquire the necessary amount of land to facilitate an expansion of this scale. In a context where PHC has refused to provide documentation for its current land claims, this announcement makes it even more obvious that the company has no respect for the ongoing mediation process and for the concerned Congolese communities.

Despite the lack of any serious investigation into the land issues, the ICM panel has already indicated that a final mediation session will take place in January 2024 in Kinshasa between the company and a selection of village leaders, accompanied by RIAO-RDC and government officials.  For the villagers and the national and international civil society organisations following the process, the complaint was filed to resolve the legacy land issues, because land is a crucial asset for villagers to improve their livelihoods and their land rights need to be respected. A few social projects or compensation cannot address these rights violations and the mediation fails if there is no resolution of the land issues.

A third issue undermining the mediation process is with the ICM's financing. It is unclear how much the ICM has received for the process and how it has allocated funds so far towards the participation of the different parties. RIAO-RDC indicates that they have had to advance funds for agreed items of the budget without certainty of being reimbursed.

The ICM, the development banks and their host governments in Germany, the Netherlands and France, as well as Belgium and the UK, need to urgently assure an effective complaints mechanism with adequate and transparent funding, resources and access to land documents, as well as security for the participating villagers and their representatives, including the cessation of arrests and harassment and the immediate liberation of villagers from prison.  Otherwise the ICM will not be able to address the rights violations of communities impacted by companies financed by development banks, which will show once again how the banks are not able to prevent and repair harms when financing projects with legacy land conflicts.

We also insist that evidence already provided by the communities makes it clear that funding from development banks to PHC (and its owner at the time, Feronia Inc) facilitated an illegal expansion of PHC plantations and land claims. The development banks, at a minimum, have a responsibility to ensure that the lands are immediately returned to the communities and that the affected villagers are remediated for related violations of their human right to food and compensated for the loss of their lands and the negative affects they have suffered over past decades as a result.

Signed by:

Entraide et Fraternité
FIAN Belgium
FIAN Germany
National Synergy of Peasants and Residents of Cameroon (SYNAPARCAM)
Oakland Institute
Oxfam Novib
Rainforest Rescue
Struggle to Economize Future Environment (SEFE)
The Corner House
World Rainforest Movement

Source: Farmlandgrab

Struggle and Hope for a World Without Oil

In this editorial we would like to acknowledge the contribution that the Ecuadorian people have made to the world in the struggle for territories free of oil exploitation.

In August 2023, a national referendum won by almost 60 percent in favor of stopping oil exploitation in the Yasuní National Park; this is an Amazonian territory that Indigenous Peoples, including some in voluntary isolation, depend upon. Oil operations were already underway, forcing Petroecuador to dismantle its drilling rigs and infrastructure, and leave. “No more wells!” was the clear message of hope in support of the struggles to defend territories and life.

The results of the referendum were the fruit of committed, diverse and persevering movements, with Indigenous Peoples at the forefront. Members of the Waoraní People formed a delegation to travel to other territories and build ties of support with other Indigenous Peoples and sectors of the population.

This important and hopeful achievement of the Ecuadorian people has taken place at a time in which international elites—in particular oil companies—continue to cling to the power and profit they derive from fossil fuels. Let us not forget that these fuels are the pillars of the globalized capitalist economy; the fossil fuel industry, therefore, is strategic in the expansion of capital. Just five countries in the Global North are responsible for over half of current plans to expand oil and gas exploitation by 2050 (1).

Last September, on a panel with other CEOs of the world's largest energy companies, Vicki Hollub (CEO of U.S. oil company Occidental Petroleum) said: “I don't see where we are today as something that's going to end our industry, even though there are those who would like it to disappear. As we've done in the past, we will find ways to innovate out of the situation that we're in (…) The biggest challenge (…) is getting people to trust our industry again...” (2)

This statement exposes, once again, how the industry responsible for climate chaos and the devastation of countless territories and forests continues to deploy strategies to try to legitimize its business. Among other arguments, they claim that oil and gas are now “green,” “carbon neutral” or even “clean” (3). They back these claims with false solutions, such as carbon offset projects—which are mostly worthless and, even worse, harmful to communities, forests and the climate (4). The vast majority of these offset projects are related to forests and land, and in particular to conservation areas and industrial tree plantations (5). This, in turn, is a constant threat to forest-dependent peoples (6).  

In this bulletin we share articles that show the flip side of these corporate greenwashing strategies: the many negative impacts that industrial tree plantations cause for peoples and territories in Uruguay, India, Brazil and Mozambique. Another article denounces the colonial model of protected areas, in particular the Kahuzi-Biega National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and the Batwa People's struggle to recover their ancestral lands.

Once again, it is peoples and grassroots movements that model coherence and wisdom in the fight for life. Only by leaving fossil fuels in the ground can we move toward many possible worlds. In a press release, the Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (CONAIE, by its Spanish acronym) announced: “The victory of the YES vote means that the Ecuadorian people have chosen to save life, to raise awareness about our Tagaeri, Taromenane and Dukagaeri brothers and sisters in voluntary isolation, and to vote YES to save their territory, their lives, their food sovereignty, and their medicines in the sacred rainforest. This YES is a respite for Yasuní and for the Andean Chocó, which are ecosystems of enormous biodiversity. Ecuador is making a significant contribution in the fight against climate change. We have won at the polls, and we are proclaiming this message so that other peoples of the world can also make use of their rights as citizens to protect nature” (7).

We reiterate the following statement made by an activist and former Minister of Energy in Ecuador: “What we need is to multiply the number of Yasunís around the world” (8).

(1) OilChange, 2023, Planet Wreckers: How 20 Countries’ Oil and Gas Extraction Plans Risk Locking in Climate Chaos
(2) CNBC, 2023, ‘We are not in the business of ice cream’: Big Oil CEOs defend themselves against climate criticism
(3) AgenciaBrasil, 2023, Petrobras lanza la primera gasolina neutra en carbono de Brasil
(4) See for example: The Guardian, 2023, Revealed: top carbon offset projects may not cut planet-heating emissions; REDD-Monitor, 2023, Carbon offset deals in fictitious Carbon Dioxide Removal technologies; Suriname: Real oil and fake offsets; Mongabay, 2022, At a plantation in Central Africa, Big Oil tries to go net-zero,
(5) Ecosystem Marketplace Database
(6) See several articles and publications on REDD's impact on forest peoples here
 (7) CONAIE, 2023, Celebramos el triunfo del SÍ por Yasuní y el Chocó Andino
(8) David Hill, 2023, ‘What we need is to multiply the number of Yasunis around the world'

Communities from Brazil and Mozambique exchange experiences in the fight against industrial tree plantations

Exchanges between those who fight to defend their territories are crucial in helping connect and strengthen resistance movements; they also support mutual learning from the experiences, wisdom and struggles of diverse communities. In these spaces, the voices of those who have organized, mobilized and placed their bodies and communities on the frontlines to defend life are at the center.

These encounters between members of communities from Brazil and Mozambique are also important in connecting the struggles and histories of black communities who are  currently resisting the multiple oppressions imposed by tree plantation companies. These exchanges, which strengthen ties of solidarity, have been taking place for more than five years – through virtual connections, face-to-face visits and various other exchanges.  

"One thing that I believe is very important for a resistance movement is the unity and mobilization of impacted peoples and communities, (...) as well as the relationship between the territory, the local culture and the means of production." This was the message that Ronaldo, from Minas Gerais state in northern Brazil, gave to Mozambican communities in 2019 through video letters. Meanwhile, in her message to counterparts and comrades in Mozambique, Francisca María of Maranhão state also warns them to "never accept the company's deceitful proposals," and to focus on uniting their struggle.

In 2021, a gathering of communities facing the impacts of industrial tree plantations from Brazil, Mozambique and Tanzania concluded with a declaration that said, among other things: "...this whole situation is causing a lot of suffering and hunger in the communities, and it especially impacts women. The government has opened the doors to companies and investors, and has closed them to the people. What is happening is a new form of colonialism in which companies are the new colonizers of lands where communities have lived for generations (...) We believe that together we will be stronger in resisting monocultures and all types of usurpation of our lands."

In September 2023, a new gathering was organized as part of the International Day of Struggle Against Monoculture Tree Plantations. The activity provided continuity to these exchanges, and once again helped strengthen solidarity between Quilombola communities in Brazil who are fighting against Suzano Papel e Celulose plantations, and communities in Mozambique fighting against Green Resources and Portucel Moçambique (The Navigator Company) plantations (1). The following was recorded in the declaration that emerged from this gathering:

Virtual Brazil-Mozambique gathering: Resistance against eucalyptus monocultures, and a celebration of the defense of territories

As part of the week of the International Day of Struggle Against Monoculture Tree Plantations, which is celebrated on September 21, communities affected by large eucalyptus plantations in Brazil and Mozambique held a virtual gathering to celebrate the resistance that unites us in struggle – for our territories and our lives, and against eucalyptus green deserts. Communities and organizations that comprise the Alert Against the Green Desert Network gathered in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil to attend the virtual gathering; while sister communities and organizations in Mozambique gathered at the same time in the provinces of Nampula and Zambézia. We talked about the violence of the destructive model of plantation and paper companies in our local communities, and we shared our experiences of collective resistance, proving that we are much closer than the physical distance that separates us.   

For more than 50 years in Brazil, we have been fighting against large eucalyptus monocultures that were installed during the military regime as part of the green revolution – in the Sapê do Norte region of Espírito Santo state, and in southern Bahía. These plantations were originally established by the company Aracruz Celulose, which is now Suzano Papel e Celulose. In Mozambique, the companies Green Resources and Portucel Moçambique (The Navigator Company) installed their monocultures more than 10 years ago in the provinces of Nampula and Zambézia. Despite the different companies, regions and time frames, we suffer very similar impacts in our communities – impacts which we denounce: the destruction of native forests; the disappearance and contamination of waterways; the appropriation of community lands; false promises on the part of companies; and criminalization, persecution and threats.

As women, we are even more affected. In addition to having our daily work affected, there has been an intensification in the physical and psychological violence that men perpetrate towards us; this is the case of both men employed by the company and men within our communities – where we have ever-diminishing access to land, water and resources for our children's subsistence.

We also share the same Afro past and present. In Brazil, our Quilombola communities are proud of their African ancestry and their heritage of resistance against white-led companies that affected, and continue to affect, our lives. In Mozambique, the struggle for independence was fought to free the land and the people, and now we are fighting to keep our territories. As Samora Machel used to say, "our enemy is not the white man or the black man, but anyone who does harm or destroys the wellbeing of the people."

At the end of the gathering, we had mixed feelings: indignation at the injustices our communities suffer, and enthusiasm as we realize that we are not alone in this fight. With this spirit of solidarity and resistance, we have already begun to recover territories that were usurped from us in Brazil. And in Mozambique, we will not wait 50 years to reclaim our territories, which we inhabited long before the arrival of the companies and eucalyptus trees.

Down with green deserts!

We stand together in this great global recovery of our territories. Towards justice and reparations!

In Mozambique:

Napai II Community – Nampula Province
Namacuco Community - Nampula Province
Meparara Community - Nampula Province
Messa Community - Nampula Province
Intatapila Community -  Nampula Province
Misión Tabita - Zambézia Province
Justicia Ambiental - ¡JA!

In Brazil:

Alert Against the Green Desert Network
Quilombola Commission of Sapê do Norte, Espírito Santo
Quilombola Community of Angelim DISA
Quilombola Community of Angelim I
Quilombola Community of Chiado
Quilombola Community of São Domingos
MST – Landless Workers' Movement, Espírito Santo
CDDH/Serra – Center for the Defense of Human Rights of Serra, Espírito Santo
MNDH – National Human Rights Movement
FACA - Anarchist Federation of Capixaba
FASE – Federation of Social Assistance and Education Organizations, Espírito Santo
WRM – World Rainforest Movement

(1) Quilombola communities are made up of descendants of African people who were subjected to slavery in colonial and imperial Brazil, and who managed to escape.

Dayak Women’s Struggle to Protect the Forests in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

The Dayak Indigenous Peoples perceive the universe as a nurturing mother who expresses her love and sustains human existence through her abundant resources. They follow a life philosophy called "Sesukup Belumbah Adat," which means: “where the Earth is stepped, the sky is upheld.” This philosophy emphasizes their core value of respecting where they live. Consequently, the Dayak People prioritize the caring of their forests as a means of demonstrating respect for the universe and their ancestors. Regrettably, the greed of those in power has jeopardized the well-maintain equilibrium of the universe.


Since the New Order era (1) during ex-president Soeharto’s regime (1966-1998), the lands of the Dayak Indigenous People in Kalimantan have been targeted for investment opportunities. The expansion of oil palm plantations in the region started from the early 1980s. During Soeharto's regime, state-owned plantations expanded and sourced labor through the transmigration program, which started during the Dutch colonial ruling mainly to ensure a workforce for plantations in less populated areas. The forest and land clearance permits granted by the Ministry of Forestry during the 1980s, led to approximately two million hectares of forests being destroyed for oil palm plantations and transmigration purposes. The government also awarded extensive concessions to domestic conglomerates involved in the logging industry. In 1984, authorities in Central Kalimantan, through the Plantation Development Master Plan (RIPP, for its Indonesian acronym), designated oil palm as a commodity to be massively cultivated.

When the economic crisis hit Indonesia in the 1990s, the expansion of oil palm plantations intensified. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) gave a package to the government to liberalize foreign investment in the palm oil sector. Under the pretext of recovering from the economic crisis, the government promoted the expansion of transnational oil palm plantations companies. These include: PT. Kalimantan Lestari Mandiri (KLM Ltd), located between the village of Mantangai Hulu to the village of Kalumpang, and PT. Usaha Handalan Perkasa (UHP Ltd) in the village of Mantangai Hulu.

KLM Ltd. is a subsidiary of a Chinese group called Tianjin Julong, which now operates at least 50 thousand hectares of oil palm plantations in the country, and has an additional 140 thousand hectares of concessions still to be developed. It also has three mills, two river port storage facilities and one processing facility. (2)

For its part, UHP Ltd., which started operations in the country since 2010, covers an area of more than 15 thousand hectares of oil palm plantations, surrounding the districts of Kapuas Hulu Barat and Mantangai. People living in these districts lost their fertile lands without any explanation about the permit.

The enormous expansion of oil palm plantations however has not been enough.

Kalimantan has also emerged as the target of a large-scale Food Estate program. The stated objective of this program is to overcome the food crisis by maintaining national food stocks, notably rice. It is planned to be developed on land that used to be the ex-Peatland Development (PLG, for its acronym in Bahasa Indonesian) (3) as well as on private land belonging to residents in Central Kalimantan. The Food Estate has been included in the National Strategic Program (PSN) 2020-2024. However, it has no difference with previous polices that mostly aim to pave the way for land dispossession. According to a recent analysis, more than 1,500 hectares of forests, including peatlands, have been cleared for Food Estate program. (4)

On top of this, the government has started its plans to develop a new capital city in the forests of East Kalimantan, generating a new set of impacts for Indigenous communities. (5) At the same time, the rush for ‘carbon concessions’ to sell carbon credits to polluting companies and governments add pressures on Indigenous’ land and has negative effects for its inhabitants. (6)

Resistance to Preserve Local Wisdom

In every account of land dispossession, resistance and struggle inevitably emerge as a response.

Dijah is a Dayak Women who courageously took a leading role when her land was seized by UHP Ltd. In collaboration with women from Mantangai, she orchestrated a protest in August 2013 to remove oil palm seeds and replace them with rubber seeds. They repeated this action in December 2014. Moreover, in June 2020, they fearlessly impeded UHP's access to their land by installing a wooden gate and occupying the land for 12 days. Dijah remains committed to safeguard her ancestral lands, regardless of the threats she encounters. “I personally have no fear because it is my rightful inheritance from my ancestors,” she expressed with conviction during a conversation in October 2022 with members of the feminist Indonesian organization Solidaritas Perempuan.

According to Dijah, the land grabbing process occurred abruptly. She explained how the company took advantage of her absence and swiftly cleared the land. “When we returned, the land had already been cleared, and our newly planted trees had been destroyed,” she recounted. While Dijah acknowledges the serious consequences that exercising resistance has, Dayak women consider defending their land an imperative, regardless of the persistent intimidation they face.

The BRIMOB (The Mobile Brigade Corps), which is the special operations, paramilitary, and tactical unit of the Indonesian National Police, detained Dijah. Nonetheless, she remained fearless, even fortified by the support of her collective.

Since the land conflict, Dijah and other women in Mantangai have been active in organizing a collective group called “Hurung Hapakat”, which means “Working Together”. Founded in 2017, 25 women managed to reclaim half a hectare of land back from the control of UHP Ltd. On that reclaimed land, they have planted various kinds of vegetables to meet the family's food subsistence —such as beans, kale, eggplant, chilies, ginger, lemongrass, turmeric, cucumber, and galangal. Collectively, they maintain the plot. This initiative also thrives on planting local rice using traditional seeds and wisdom.

The company still threatens with bringing her to the police. “They exploit people's lack of familiarity with legal procedures as a tool of terror”, she explained. Despite all, Dijah finds her strength and empowerment in resisting as part of a collective. The safe space these women have established and maintained serves as a platform for discussions, including issues related to the threat of criminalization, providing her with a sense of support.

One of the concerns of the collective is the displacement of local rice seeds because of the mass use of hybrid seeds. This is a consequence of the mercantilization of this grain under capitalist production logic.

One crucial way to preserve the local seeds in indigenous Dayak wisdom is through the practice of shifting cultivation. However, many seeds are damaged and can no longer be planted. This is because land is now limited and soil conditions are different, coupled with the complexity of applying their ancestral practices in these circumstances and with the difficulty of understanding the changing nature.

Food Estates that ignore ancestral practices also exacerbate the situation. The rice seeds planted on those Estates are commodity seeds, such as Inpari 16. As a result, this project is incompatible with the characteristics of Kalimantan's dominant soil: the peatland. For Dayak women, Food Estates have the potential to damage their environments instead of creating prosperity, as the government claims. “After all our local crops have been removed, how can we be prosperous?”, affirmed Dijah.

To ensure the protection of their land, Dayak women have adopted a strategic approach to cultivating. Remi, another member of the Hurung Hapakat collective, firmly believes that cultivating the land serves as a tangible manifestation of defending it. “If we allow it to become overgrown, people will perceive it as idle land, making them feel entitled to seize it. However, by consistently cultivating it, they will no longer dare to do so,” she asserted with conviction in October 2022.

The ongoing process of reclaiming their land is closely intertwined with raising awareness through discussions and meetings, particularly concerning the continuity of the women's movement they have established. Sri, another member of Hurung Hapakat, explains: “It is crucial to have a women's movement because sometimes women are perceived as weak when acting alone, but when we come together as a group, our voices are more easily heard,” emphasizing the vital importance of creating and maintaining a women's movement.

Weaving The Rattan, Sewing The Hope

Women organizing resistance together has not only happened in Mantangai. Another women collective was also created in the Kalumpang Village, Kapuas, in Central Kalimantan. Their resistance to large-scale land clearing has fostered a sense of solidarity among women in the village. When the authorities ignore their voices and demands, they find ways to strengthen one another.

The social construction regarding gender roles inside the village unfortunately makes the collective decision-making very biased, by identifying only men as the deciders. Due to this, many of the projects in the village are carried out without the women’s knowledge or consent. This situation encouraged them to propose a Village Regulation that promotes and facilitates women's involvement in decision-making. The initiative has been met with a positive response from the village chief, who has showed willingness to embrace and support increased female participation in shaping of the village's decisions. For Rica, a woman from the Kalumpang village, “women's involvement in decision-making is prominent”.

Women from Kalumpang have also formed two groups for economic independence: a collective harvesting group and a rattan-weaving group. The former has 20 members aiming to grow vegetables for their daily needs while ensuring food sovereignty, while the latter has 8 members aiming to preserve their traditional knowledge of rattan weaving.

As the Dayak philosophy of life, Rica and the Kalumpang women continue to maintain the balance of their lives in the forests by preserving and respecting what is around them, including the rattan, which was burnt completely during the 2015 forest fires. “Since then, it [the rattan] has been hard to find, so we started planting it again, to make it still useful,” said Rica.

Through the rattan, women groups in Kalumpang have introduced various kinds of weaving items - from bags, accessories, mats, and various other forms of handicrafts. Weaving also makes their discussions much more enjoyable. Currently, many people know their products through their collective sales. Another advantage is that it can also help them to extend the continuity of the struggle. As long as they weave, that rattan will still be on the ground of Kalimantan. “By planting rattan or other trees—that's how we defend our land too,” she said enthusiastically.

A reflection about and with Dayak People will never be complete without a reflection on Kaharingan, the indigenous religion of the Dayak. Kaharingan means “to exist, to grow or to live”. It is symbolized as Garing or the tree of life, which means balance or harmony in the relationship among human beings, between humans and nature, and between humans and God. The Dayak people, especially the Benawan Dayak, uphold the value of respecting land, water and forests. For them, all of these contain life that must be continuously guarded. Therefore, the Dayak People are very wise in how they treat nature as well as in building their social life, in accordance with their ancestors’ mandate, which is contained in the expression "Haga Lewun Keton, Petak Danom, ela sampai tempun petak nana sare", which means "Take care of your land, don't let land owners farming on the outskirts". This mandate is internalized by the Dayak People to guard their villages and land.

Annisa Nur Fadhilah
Solidaritas Perempuan – Indonesia


(1) The New Order (Indonesian: Orde Baru, abbreviated Orba) is the term coined by the second Indonesian President Suharto to characterize his administration as he came to power in 1966 until his resignation in 1998.
(2) China Dialogue, From palm to Plate.
(3) President Soeharto issued a presidential decree in 1995 to develop one million hectares of Central Kalimantan's peatlands into rice fields. In 1999, president B.J. Habibie terminated the project, but enormous damage had already been done and vast communities affected. The degraded peatlands can no longer function as water storage or hydrological regulator, hence the dramatic fluctuation in groundwater levels, which leads to frequent flooding during the rainy season and fires during the dry season. There are currently dozens of oil palm concessions in this area. Fires are often found inside these concessions, but the companies who own them are rarely charged. See further here.
(4) Mongabay, High-carbon peat among 1,500 hectares cleared for Indonesia’s food estate, April 2023.
(5) WRM Bulletin 259, The Coercion of the Indonesia’s New Capital City Mega-Project and the Neglect of the Balik People’s Voices, January 2022.  
(6) WRM, 15 years of REDD, The Katingan REDD+ Project in Indonesia: The Commodification of Nature, Labour and Communities' Reproduction, April 2022.